An abundance of cultural and historical monuments are located in the town of Bihac, the most important being the Captain's Tower, the Mosque of Fethi, the Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Turba, the Krajina Roads Building, the AVNOJ First Session Museum, the Rmanj Monastery and others. There are several medieval towns in the area of Bihac, of which we stand out: the Falcon Tower, Orašac, Havala and Ostrovica in Kulen Vakuf.
There are several legends about the Captain's Tower. The most popular one, which is based in part on histroic facts, says that the Bihac Fort - Captain's Tower saved the life of the Hungarian-Croatian King Bela IV from the Tatar horsemen. In gratitude, Bela IV declared Bihac a free city. Although it is one of the oldest buildings in Bihac, the Captain's Tower has not been determined to date. It is supposed to be in 1205 when four towers were actually built, but three were quickly destroyed. Today, the Captain's Tower is the Museum of the Una-Sana Canton where you can find river exhibits from the time of the Yapod tribes.
Right next to the Captain's Tower is the famous Bihac Stone Turbe. The exact time or date of its creation has not been determined, but it is assumed to have arisen immediately after the new Austro-Hungarian government became established. During the reign of the Ottomans, the site of the demolished Catholic Church housed the first turbos made of wood. But when the new government started building the church on the old foundations, it had to be destroyed, but at a location just a few meters away, a new turbe was built of local bihacite stone. This move by the government has pleased both the Catholic and Muslim populations of Bihać. There are several legends about its creation and about what is actually buried in it.
The Mosque of Fethiye
The Fethiye Mosque is the only European Gothic-style Islamic place of worship. It represents one of the most preserved sacral buildings in BiH. It was originally built as the church of St. Anthony of Padua in the late 12th and early 14th centuries, but with the arrival of the Ottomans in these areas and the conquest of the last fort in Pounje, the Bihać church was reorganized into the main mosque in the city and named Fethiya, meaning conquered. The Fethiya mosque was a model for the construction of mosques in the Krajina, characterized by a slightly longer prayer space, elongated windows and a two-level mahfil. The Gothic bell tower of this building served as a minaret until 1863, when it was demolished and replaced by the present minaret, which was built on the site of the bell tower and of the same type of stone-bihacite.
The mosque contained nine plaques with the coats of arms of members of the Croatian nobility, who served in Bihac and its surroundings from 1519 to 1565. Today, these plaques are in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo. The plates are inscribed in Latin and the letters are humanistic and gothic, decorated with coats of arms with a heraldic shield.
The Fethiye mosque with a harem, nine tombstones and inscriptions in Bihać has been designated a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Church of St. Antun
Church of St. Antun was built at the end of the 19th century and completed in 1894 in the manner of Western European electicism. It is believed to have been built on the site of the demolished medieval Bihac church. The very appearance of the church was, at the time of completion, more than fascinating. It occupies an area of approximately 900 m2, with a high rectangular gate, and is one of the three largest churches in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Church of St. Unfortunately, Antun was devastated during World War II. Only the tower next to the walled turbe remained of the church.
AVNOJ First Session Museum
The museum belongs to the first category of anti-fascism monuments. The founding and first session of AVNOJ was held here on November 27, 1942.
Enver Krupic Gallery By visiting the Enver Krupić Gallery, one can see the works of an artist who has dedicated his entire working life to painting the natural beauties of the area. Exhibitions of paintings by eminent painters exhibiting at the City Gallery and the Una Gallery are worthy of attention. Writers and poets are also happy to present their works in these spaces.
Medieval town of Orasac
The cities are fortresses from the medieval and Ottoman periods, and they represent fortifications built of stone. Some cities had towers and tabies, some only towers, and some again only tabi or bastions. The largest number of fortified towns in medieval Bosnia were created during its state independence, from the 13th to the 15th centuries.
Orašac is a medieval town that belonged to Hum Parish, and later an Ottoman town within the Ostrovica Captain's Office, located on a steep hill above the town of the same name. It is located 2 km of airline south of this position. The town was added between 1703 and 1730, and with the existing medieval tower, 8 m high, was fortified with walls that have been partially preserved to this day. Most of the towns and mosques that were inside the city walls at the time were built during the Ottoman rule, and only those ruins remain today. During the Ottoman period, the fort was run by a dizdar with a crew of 60 nefer (soldiers) and a commander. In 1833, 3 cannons were installed here.
Our Krajina claim that Walnut is the homeland of the Fool's Tale, the most significant personality of our folk epic.
Old Bosnian town of Ostrovica
The city of Ostrovica contains at least three distinctive historical layers. The medieval layer of the town was built in the 15th century on a prehistoric hill fort, from which the remains of a protective rampart on the hill of the same name are preserved. The hill fort was defended by a combination of a protective rampart and a steep rock from the most inaccessible north - east side, whose dikes 282 m long and 211 m wide are still recognizable today. A ditch extends below the western wall of the fort. On the west side are foundations of the ruins are 14 m long and 6 m wide. The entrance is on the west side. This church is called "Ostrovicka" or "Greek Church" by the people. The medieval town of Ostrovica was located in the parish of Lapac and belonged to Karlovici. In the Middle Ages it was the most fortified city in the upper reaches of the Una River. Its development and expansion continued during the Ottoman rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main entrance was from the south, and the side from the north. In December 1523, the city fell under Ottoman rule and until 1878 the Ottoman government held a crew there, and was abandoned in 1878. Its significance and size is evidenced by the fact that during the 16th century it housed a crew of 60 horsemen and 150 infantrymen. The city was expanded and strengthened in the 18th century with four towers and two taboos. Since then, no additional construction and modifications have been made to it. It was named after the captaincy of Stara Ostrovica, and it extended on both sides of the upper course of the Una River, from its source to about 15 km below the present Kulen Vakuf. Other cities included: Orašac, Havala, Dzisr-i-kebir, Palanka Čovka and Donji Lapac. The captains were tasked with defending the borders and protecting the interior of the territory, as well as the more important roads and crossings, and later to take over police affairs. The captains were the captains and these were hereditary functions. After the Karlovac peace, Stara Ostrovica was considerably expanded and fortified, and a small town was erected along the tower in Orasac, while the towns of Havala and Jisr-i-kebir (the Great Bridge), today Kulen Vakuf, were built from the ground up. The captaincy was first mentioned in 1699, and the captains belonged to the Kulenović family, called Haračlije. The captains survived in Stara Ostrovica until after 1791. At the main entrance to the city was their outpost (noble court). After losing Lapac and moving the border in the immediate vicinity of Stara Ostrovica, the captain transferred his headquarters to Prkose, where he built a tower and a tower next to it.
The towers are buildings that had a defensive residential function, and were predominantly built in Turkish times. They were built by large feudal lords on their estates and captains by captains. They are built of multi-storey stone, and their base is almost always square. Around the towers there was usually a courtyard surrounded by a wall with several smaller structures, and similar fortifications with a peninsula were the beginnings of some cities. Their roof was in the shape of a four-sided pyramid. The ground floors of the towers, in which the captains arranged, served as a prison. Klisevic tower according to historical sources available so far, erected between the Great Vienna War of 1683 and the peace of Karlovac in 1699. The tower belonged to the old beg family of Kulenovic, who owned their property here, and they moved to Klicevic after the end of the Karlovac Peace, and one branch of this family was called Kulenovići-Kliševići. That the tower had a defensive character in addition to the residential purpose is evident by the window openings and loopholes, which are still visible on the ground floor of the tower whose premises also served as a prison. The tower had 4 floors that were interconnected with floor structures, it was built of quality limestone, and above the windows and entrances, tufa from the Una River was used as building material. The Klicevic tower was built as one in the line of forts made up of Bihac-Sokolac-Klicevic-Orasac-Ostrovica. In the hinterland of this line, namely Klišević and Orašac, a few kilometers of the eastbound air route, there is the Vrnograč tower and the Prkosi tower, which are thought to have been built in the same period. Khalil beg Kulenovic, son of Mahmut Pasha, is the first possessor of Klicevic, and the last escape permanently residing in the Klicevic Tower was Malić beg Kulenović. One part of the tower was demolished in 1918, and the whole settlement and the tower itself were set on fire and totally destroyed in 1941 when its last inhabitants left it.
The medieval town of Rmanj
The medieval town of Rmanj was erected in the late 14th or early 15th century at the mouth of the Ounce at Una, and there are opinions by historians that this old town dates from the 12th century. According to records from 1396, this city was called Konuba. The city ramparts were demolished to the ground, and only a 10-meter-high tower was preserved, with floors separated by arches. It is first mentioned in the sources in 1431 when it was pledged by King Sigismund of Hungary to Nikola Frankopan. The widow Anza Frankopan lived in Rmanj for a time in 1436 and signed on as a princess of Rmanya. In the mid-15th century, it was obtained by Juraj Frankopan. In this city, in 1451, a "judge" and "purgari fraternity" are mentioned. Named Rmanj, this city is mentioned as early as 1504 among the cities that needed to be repaired and better fortified.
Ottoman fortress of Havala
Opposite Ostrovica, across the valley of the Una River where Kulen Vakuf is located, are the ruins of the old Haval fort. It was built around the middle of the seventeenth century, and it is assumed that the fort was built by Sultan Ahmed III. This defensive fort was made up of a stone entrance and a tabi1, and its eastern side is enclosed by a wall 5 m high and up to 1 meter thick. Above the main entrance was a masjid2, as evidenced by the still visible mihrab3, and to the left of the entrance were two towers. For centuries, Havala was a strategically important fort from which the bridge over the Una River and the entire Kulen Vakuf (formerly Jisr-i-kebir - the Great Bridge) was monitored, as well as road communication on the right side of the river that connected Lika and Dalmatia with other destinations. in the region and beyond. To the west of Havala is a Muslim burial ground (cemetery) with the burial ground (burial ground) of Smailbeg Kulenovic, one of Havdal's dizdar (commander). The cemeteries were built in the form of a sarcophagus with two nišans (tombstones) and, like many old tombstones in the area, were built of native bihacite stone, which is very long lasting and very suitable for carving. Although not maintained, the inscriptions on them are still clearly visible today, and are written in Arabic letters and Turkish.
1 - Tabiyah - Arabism marking a fortress or a place to house an army
2 - Masjid - a place (temple) for prayer in Islam
3 - Mihrab (Arabic محراب) - is a niche in the wall of a mosque that is directed in the direction of Kible (Kabe in Mecca) to which are Muslims turned to prayer. During the common prayers in the mosque, the imam stands in the mihrab while the other worshipers worship are behind him.
Old town of Brekovica
The old town of Brekovica was first mentioned in historical sources in 1330 as a royal city. It was built of stone on a steep hill above the left bank of the Una. The fort had a spaciously protected courtyard with exterior defensive walls and a city tower. From 1436 it came into the ownership of the nobleman Babonić Blagajski, and at the end of the 15th century Brekovica became the property of the noble family Kobasić. In the second half of the sixteenth century, Brekovica became part of the Bihac captaincy, so that in 1563 10 royal soldiers guarded it. It came under Ottoman rule in 1584, but was previously overthrown by the Habsburg authorities. In the first half of the seventeenth century it was rebuilt by the Ottoman authorities, so the census of 1643 in Brekovica lists 40 border guards. In the first half of the eighteenth century the fort was equipped with one larger and two smaller cannons and a crew of 60 border guards. It was part of the Bihac captaincy. On the steep hill, above the left bank of the Una northeast of Bihac, the remains of the old town of Brekovica are still visible.
Old town of Sokolac
The old town of Sokol was built on a high and steep hill, where even in prehistoric times there was a hill whose traces can still be seen in the immediate vicinity of its walls. It is a solidly walled city whose defense was supported by a tall and strong falconry tower erected at its most prominent position in the city, on a rock that sharply collapsed toward Una and Bihac on the north and east sides of the city. Sokol was first mentioned in sources in 1369. An easy chronicler Ivan Tomasevic thinks this town was built in 1020 AD. He had his own castellan, his crew and estates, which served to support the crew. It was under Bansko jurisdiction and the Falcon crew consisted of soldiers whose livelihood was served in the XIV century by the estates of Brekovica and Omrsal, located between Bihac and Ostrozac on the left bank of the Una, and a large estate in the Bihac field. At the head of the crew was a citadel, who also had judicial authority over the subjects residing on the property of the fort. Despite the fact that the Falcon in Sigismund's court was one of the most important forts in these countries, in the great wars at the beginning of the 15th century Sokol, together with Bihać and Ripč, was first pledged to Pavel Čupor in 1410 due to a shortage of money in Sigismund's box office. In 1431, pledged to Nicholas and Stephen Fran- copan. At the end of the 15th century, the Falcon belonged to the Croatian Ban Ivaniš Korvin, and at the beginning of the 16th century its masters were Orlovići and Kerečeni. After 1527, the Falcon was guarded by royal soldiers commanded by the Bihac captain. So in 1563 there was a crew of 12 guards in the city. Sokol came under Ottoman rule in 1592 and was immediately assigned a permanent military crew, whose commander was the guild (assistant) of the Bihac captain. At the beginning of the sixteenth century it had a small crew of 19 people. Later the crew was relocated, so they are not even mentioned in the 1643 census. In the mid-eighteenth century, the crew numbered 20 people, and the fort had two small cannons to defend it. Until recently, Sokolac was one of the most preserved old towns in these parts. In 1898, it was restored by the then Chief of Bihac Count Lothar Berks and has since been opened to visitors. Later, a café was arranged on one floor of the Sokolac tower, where postcards and basic information about the city could be obtained. In the mid-eighteenth century, the crew numbered 20 people, and the fort had two small cannons to defend it. Until recently, Sokolac was one of the most preserved old towns in these parts. In 1898, it was restored by the then Chief of Bihac Count Lothar Berks and has since been opened to visitors. Later, a café was arranged on one floor of the Sokolac tower, where postcards and basic information about the city could be obtained. In the mid-eighteenth century, the crew numbered 20 people, and the fort had two small cannons to defend it. Until recently, Sokolac was one of the most preserved old towns in these parts. In 1898, it was restored by the then Chief of Bihac Count Lothar Berks and has since been opened to visitors. Later, a café was arranged on one floor of the Sokolac tower, where postcards and basic information about the city could be obtained.
The Monastery of Rmanj in Martin Brod, in the picturesque area of the Ounce estuary at Un, is an important spiritual center of the northern Tromedia (the borders of Bosnia, Lika and Dalmatia). The folk tradition attributes his raising to Katarina Brankovic (1418 / 19-1492) - the daughter of Serbian despot Djurdj Brankovic, and to the wife of Count Urlich II of Celje. In older documents, the monastery of Rmanj is named: Hrmanj, Ajerman, Chermlja, Szermil, Hermanya, Herman, and is named after Katarina's son Herman III, who died young due to illness, and in his memory Katarina erected this monastery. In the course of time, the name Herman has been renamed to Rmanj by the people, and that name has remained to this day. The first reliable information about the foundation of the monastery of Rmnj takes us back to 1498, when the Duke "Petar, Petrašin and Vukdrag" presented him with a valuable icon of the Virgin. Serb migrations originating from Serbs, Glamoč and the Ounce valleys were led by the dukes and stopped in Žumberak, on the border of Carniola and Croatia. The Monastery of Rmanj existed even before the restoration of the Serbian Patriarchate in Peja in 1557, as evidenced by the stamp with the engraved year (1553). After the renovation, the monastery became a significant administrative center as the chair of the Dabrobosan metropolitans was relocated. The most significant name of the Metropolitan of that time is Theodore, who founded the Theological College in 1615 in the Dalmatian monastery of Krk. The Metropolitans who were established in Rmanj signed themselves as "Dabrobosan, Klichka and Lika". At the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Rmanj monastery numbered up to one hundred monks, of which reliable historical evidence exists. In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Rmanj monastery was the focal point of painting and copywriting, in a word, the nursery of the spiritual and national elite. The first half of the nineteenth century saw the monastery desolate, with no monks. The abandoned Rmanj was restored and trained for the monastic life by the dedication and material support of the Bosnian Pea merchant Gavra Vuckovic in 1863. In 1875 the monastery was again devastated and its fraternity tortured. Then the famous English archaeologist John Arthur Evans visited Rmanj, who in his Illyrian letters describes the Serbian leaders and rulers, as well as their assembly near the monastery temple. The collapse of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a prelude to the greatest suffering that Rmanj experienced in his historic journey. Rmanj was destroyed to the ground in 1944 after the Nazi Luftwaffe bombing, as partisan hospital was located there. Then his never-studied and described murals disappeared forever. For thirty years, the authorities of the SFR Yugoslavia did not allow the resurrection of the Romans. The efforts and perseverance of the Bishop of Dalmatia (Boca) in 1974 brought about the restoration of the monastery temple. Upon his arrival on the throne of the Diocese of Bihac-Petrovac Bishop of Chrysostom (Jević), in 1991, work began on the complete restoration of the Rmni monastery and its monastic life there. After the last war, the brothers of the Rmnja monastery returned to Martin Brod in 1998 and completely rebuilt the monastery. In 2006, a new monastery residence (house) was consecrated, which was erected by the efforts of Archimandrite Serafim (Kužić) and abbot Sergi (Karanović). began the work on the complete restoration of the monastery of Rmni and the monastic life there. After the last war, the brothers of the Rmnja monastery returned to Martin Brod in 1998 and completely rebuilt the monastery. In 2006, a new monastery residence (house) was consecrated, which was erected by the efforts of Archimandrite Serafim (Kužić) and abbot Sergi (Karanović). began the work on the complete restoration of the monastery of Rmni and the monastic life there. After the last war, the brothers of the Rmnja monastery returned to Martin Brod in 1998 and completely rebuilt the monastery. In 2006, a new monastery residence (house) was consecrated, which was erected by the efforts of Archimandrite Serafim (Kužić) and abbot Sergi (Karanović).
LIST OF NATIONAL MONUMENTS IN THE CITY OF BIHAC
- Fethiya mosque with harem, nine tombstones and inscriptions, the architectural ensemble,
- Hydroelectric Power Plants (Small hydropower plant "Bihac", or Hydroelectric power plant Jarak or HPP Kanal Una) in Jark, industrial unit,
- Captain's Tower, historic building
- Konak, the site and remains of the historic building,
- Prehistoric hillfort, medieval and Ottoman town of Sokolac in the village of Sokolac, historical area, Ripac, archaeological site, Location - Bihac
- Serbian Orthodox Monastery Rmanj with the remains of the original murals in Martin Brod, historical building - the site and remains of the architectural ensemble,
- Turbe - Mausoleum, historic building,
- Fragment of a stone japod urn with a representation of the Japod horsemen from the Založje, movable property
- The Jevad Jose Collection of Works of Art in the Una-Sana Canton Museum in Bihać
- Collection of works by Jovan Bijelic at the Museum of Una-Sana Canton in Bihac, movable property,
- Kloster Building (Nunnery and School of Nuns Adoration of the Blood of Christ and the AVNOJ Building and Sessions (AVNOJ Museum), the architectural ensemble,
- Krajinaputev building, historical monument,
- The parish church of st. Ante Padovansky with the tomb of the Bihac nobility (the tomb of Croatian nobles), the architectural ensemble,
- Slab on the right side of the japod stone urneiz Golubić, moving well.